Volume 5, Issue 1 (Feb 2017)                   Res Mol Med (RMM) 2017, 5(1): 6-16 | Back to browse issues page


XML Print


Abstract:   (1539 Views)

Although standard treatments are nearly life-saving in hepatitis C patients, all patients equalldon’t respond to such medications. To achieve an efficient therapeutic response in all patients, medications should individually alter based on genetic factor variations. Hence, having more detailed knowledge of the affective factors on the disease promotion could help us to organize an appropriate regime to treat HCV patients. In order to review recent studies on HCV-related treatments, the data was collected from the clinical and molecular studies published during the last 15 years in electronic databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline, Scopus and Web of Sciences. Thus, this literature reviews the recent clinical studies with the genetic-based aspects, especially those factors affecting the etiopathological and histological feature of hepatitis C, diagnostic genetic and viral affecting criteria as well as some effective treatment strategies.
 

Full-Text [PDF 481 kb]   (762 Downloads)    
Type of Study: review | Subject: Medical Virology
Received: 2017/04/11 | Accepted: 2017/06/6 | Published: 2017/06/6

References
1. 1. Ashtari S, Vahedi M, Pourhoseingholi MA, Karkhane M, Kimiia Z, Pourhoseingholi A, et al. Direct medical care costs associated with patients diagnosed with chronic HCV. Hepat Mon. 2013; 13(5): e8415. PMID: 23930132 [DOI:10.5812/hepatmon.8415]
2. Foster GR, Coppola C, Derbala M, Ferenci P, Orlandini A, Reddy KR, et al. Impact of safety-related dose reductions or discontinuations on sustained virologic response in HCV-infected patients: Results from the GUARD-C Cohort. PloS one. 2016; 11(3): e0151703. PMID: 4809570 [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0151703]
3. Zhang T, Li Y, Ho WZ. Drug abuse, innate immunity and hepatitis C virus. Rev Med virol. 2006; 16(5): 311-27. PMID: 16933366 [DOI:10.1002/rmv.508]
4. Gorodin S, Unal S, Wang Y, Mikhaylov MI, Bigbulatova L, Jehuda-Cohen T. New tools in HCV diagnosis, in light of the enhanced awareness and the new drugs for treatment: SMARTube and stimmunology. Scientific World J. 2013(2013): ID389780. PMID: 23476130 [DOI:10.1155/2013/389780]
5. Chuang WL, Yu ML. Host factors determining the efficacy of hepatitis C treatment. J Gastroenterol. 2013:48(1):22-30. PMID: 23104468 [DOI:10.1007/s00535-012-0669-x]
6. Alavian SM, Adibi P, Zali MR. Hepatitis C virus in Iran: Epidemiology of an emerging infection. Arch Iranian Med. 2005; 8(2):84-90.
7. Rezaee-Zavareh MS, Hesamizadeh K, Sharafi H, Alavian SM. Treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection with Direct-acting Antiviral Agents in Liver-Transplant patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Hepat mon. 2017; 17(6):e12324. [DOI:10.5812/hepatmon.12324]
8. Ramos JA, Silva R, Hoffmann L, Ramos ALA, Cabello PH, Ürményi TP, et al. Association of IL-10, IL-4, and IL-28B gene polymorphisms with spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus in a population from Rio de Janeiro. BMC Res Notes. 2012; 5:508. PMID: 22976179 [DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-5-508]
9. Rau M, Baur K, Geier A. Host genetic variants in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C. Viruses. 2012; 4(12):3281-302. PMID: 23342360 [DOI:10.3390/v4123281]
10. Singh S, Singh PP, Roberts LR, Sanchez W. Chemopreventive strategies in hepatocellular carcinoma. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014; 11(1):45-54. PMID: 23938459 [DOI:10.1038/nrgastro.2013.143]
11. Wantuck J, Ahmed A, Nguyen M. Review article: the epidemiology and therapy of chronic hepatitis C genotypes 4, 5 and 6. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014; 39(2):137-47. PMID: 24251930 [DOI:10.1111/apt.12551]
12. Suruki RY, Mueller N, Hayashi K, Harn D, DeGruttola V, Raker CA. Host immune status and incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma among subjects infected with hepatitis C virus: a nested case-control study in Japan. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006; 15(12):2521-5. PMID: 17164379 [DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-0485]
13. Shaker O, Ahmed A, Doss W, Abdel‐Hamid M. MxA Expression as marker for assessing the therapeutic response in HCV genotype 4 Egyptian patients. J Viral Hepat. 2010; 17(11):794-9. PMID: 20002306 [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2893.2009.01241.x]
14. Van-Lume DSdM, de Albuquerque MdFP, de Souza AI, Domingues ALC, Lopes EPdA, de Morais CNL. Association between Schistosomiasis mansoni and hepatitis C: systematic review. Rev Saúde Pública. 2013; 47(2):414-24. PMID: 24057369 [DOI:10.1590/S0034-910.2013047004247]
15. Reed K, Rice C. Overview of hepatitis C virus genome structure, polyprotein processing, and protein properties. The Hepatitis C Viruses: NewYork: Springer; 2000. p. 55-84.
16. Younossi ZM, Baranova A, Afendy A, Collantes R, Stepanova M, Manyam G. Early gene expression profiles of patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with pegylated interferon-alfa and ribavirin. Hepatol. 2009:49(3):763-74. PMID: 19140155 [DOI:10.1002/hep.22729]
17. Vivithanaporn P, Maingat F, Lin LT, Na H, Richardson CD, Agrawal B. Hepatitis C virus core protein induces neuroimmune activation and potentiates Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 neurotoxicity. PLoS One. 2010; 5(9):e12856. PMID: 20877724 [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0012856]
18. Shiryaev SA, Thomsen ER, Cieplak P, Chudin E, Cheltsov AV, Chee MS. New details of HCV NS3/4A proteinase functionality revealed by a high-throughput cleavage assay. PLoS One. 2012; 7(4):e35759. PMID: 22558217 [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0035759]
19. Dumont S, Cheng W, Serebrov V, Beran RK, Tinoco I, Pyle AM. RNA translocation and unwinding mechanism of HCV NS3 helicase and its coordination by ATP. Nature. 2006; 439(7072):105-8. PMID: 16397502 [DOI:10.1038/nature04331]
20. Woodhouse SD, Narayan R, Latham S, Lee S, Antrobus R, Gangadharan B, et al. Transcriptome sequencing, microarray, and proteomic analyses reveal cellular and metabolic impact of hepatitis C virus infection in vitro. Hepatol. 2010:52(2):443-53. PMID: 20683944 [DOI:10.1002/hep.23733]
21. Abdel-Hakeem MS, Shoukry NH. Protective immunity against hepatitis C: many shades of gray. Frontiers in immunology. 2014; 5:274. PMID: 24982656 [DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00274]
22. Schinazi R, Halfon P, Marcellin P, Asselah T. HCV direct‐acting antiviral agents: the best interferon‐free combinations. Liver Int. 2014; 34(s1):69-78. PMID: 24373081 [DOI:10.1111/liv.12423]
23. Ashtari S, Vahedi M, Pourhoseingholi MA, Pourhoseingholi A, Safaee A, Moghimi-Dehkordi B, et al. Estimation of average diagnosis and treatment costs of hepatitis C. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench. 2012; 5(3):139-45. . PMID: 24834215
24. Gerlach JT, Diepolder HM, Zachoval R, Gruener NH, Jung M-C, Ulsenheimer A, et al. Acute hepatitis C: high rate of both spontaneous and treatment-induced viral clearance. Gastroenterol. 2003; 125(1):80-8. PMID: 12851873 [DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(03)00668-1]
25. Ye L, Peng JS, Wang X, Wang YJ, Luo GX, Ho WZ. Methamphetamine enhances Hepatitis C virus replication in human hepatocytes. J viral hepat. 2008; 15(4):261-70. PMID: 18307590. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2893.2007.00940.x]
26. Omran MH, Ibrahim NE, Youssef SS, Fatouh BE, Nabil W, El-Shami MM, et al. Relation of interleukin-1β gene to treatment response in chronic patients infected with HCV genotype 4. The J Infect Dev Ctries. 2013; 7(11):851-8. PMID: 24240044 [DOI:10.3855/jidc.3823]
27. Moghadam FS, Mohebbi SR, Hosseini SM, Damav B, Zali MR. A new subtype of hepatitis C virus genotype 3: Analysis of available evidence. Hepat Mon. 2013; 13(8). E13380. PMID: 17935166
28. Messina JP, Humphreys I, Flaxman A, Brown A, Cooke GS, Pybus OG, et al. Global distribution and prevalence of hepatitis C virus genotypes. Hepatol. 2015; 61(1):77-87. PMID: 25069599 [DOI:10.1002/hep.27259]
29. Shiffman ML, Di Bisceglie AM, Lindsay KL, Morishima C, Wright EC, Everson GT, et al. Peginterferon Alfa-2a and ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C who have failed prior treatment. Gastroenterol. 2004; 126(4):1015-23. PMID: 15059949 [DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2004.01.014]
30. Sarrazin C, Susser S, Doehring A, Lange CM, Müller T, Schlecker C, et al. Importance of IL28B gene polymorphisms in hepatitis C virus genotype 2 and 3 infected patients. J Hepatol. 2011; 54(3):415-21. PMID: 21112657 [DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2010.07.041]
31. Zeuzem S, Soriano V, Asselah T, Bronowicki J-P, Lohse AW, Müllhaupt B, et al. Faldaprevir and deleobuvir for HCV genotype 1 infection. N Engl J Med. 2013; 369(7):630-9. PMID: 23944300 [DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1213557]
32. Jensen DM, Brunda M, Elston R, Gane EJ, George J, et al. Interferon-free Regimens containing Setrobuvir for Patients with Genotype 1 Chronic Hepatitis C: A randomized, Multicenter study. Liver Int. 2016:36(4): 505-14. PMID: 26519669 [DOI:10.1111/liv.12997]
33. Sulkowski M, Rodriguez-Torres M, Lawitz E, Shiffman M, Pol S, Herring R, et al. 1421 High Sustained Virologic Response Rate in Treatment-Naive HCV Genotype 1a and 1b Patients Treated for 12 Weeks with an Interferon-Free All-Oral Quad Regimen: Interim Results. J Hepatol. 2012; 56:S560. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-8278(12)61432-9 [DOI:10.1016/S0168-8278(12)61433-0]
34. Jimenez-Sousa MA, Fernandez-Rodriguez A, Guzman-Fulgencio M, Garcia-Alvarez M, Resino S. Meta-analysis: implications of interleukin-28B polymorphisms in spontaneous and treatment-related clearance for patients with hepatitis C. BMC Med. 2013;11:6. PMID: 23298311 [DOI:10.1186/1741-7015-11-6]
35. Moura AS, Carmo RA, Teixeira AL, Leite VH, Rocha MO. Soluble inflammatory markers as predictors of liver histological changes in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases: official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology. 2010; 29(9):1153-61. PMID: 20559676
36. Karkhane M, Mohebbi SR, Azimzadeh P, Niasar MS, Sarbazi MR, Sharifian A, et al. Lack of association between interleukin 28B gene polymorphisms (rs8099917G/T, rs12979860 C/T) and susceptibility to chronic hepatitis C virus infection, Tehran, Iran. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench. 2016; 9(Sl1):S29. PMID: 28224025
37. Azimzadeh P, Mohebbi SR, Romani S, Kazemian S, Mirtalebi H, Vahedi M, et al. Role of TGF-β1 codon 10 polymorphism in chronic hepatitis C patients. J Babol Univ Med Sci. 2011; 13(4).
38. Romani S, Azimzadeh P, Mohebbi SR, Kazemian S, Almasi S, Naghoosi H, et al. Investigation of transforming growth factor-β1 gene polymorphisms among Iranian patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepat Mon. 2011;11(11):901-6. PMID: 22363353 [DOI:10.5812/kowsar.1735143X.3752]
39. Salehi Moghadam F, Mohebbi SR, Hosseini SM, Romani S, Mirtalebi H, Azimzadeh P, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis C virus strains and risk factors associated with infection and viral subtypes among Iranian patients. J Med Virol. 2014; 86(8):1342-9. PMID: 24838700 [DOI:10.1002/jmv.23947]
40. Ashtari S, Vahedi M, Pourhoseingholi MA, Zali MR. Evaluated outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench. 2013; (S6):S58-S64.
41. Fan X, Liu W, Li C, Wang Z, Luo L, Tan D, et al. Circulating Th1 and Th2 cytokines in patients with hepatitis C virus infection. Mediators of inflammation. 1998; 7(4):295-7. PMID: 9792342 [DOI:10.1080/09629359890992]
42. Polyak SJ, Khabar KS, Rezeiq M, Gretch DR. Elevated levels of interleukin-8 in serum are associated with hepatitis C virus infection and resistance to interferon therapy. J Virol. 2001; 75(13):6209-11. PMID: 11390624 [DOI:10.1128/JVI.75.13.6209-6211.2001]
43. Masumoto T, Ohkubo K, Yamamoto K, Ninomiya T, Abe M, Akbar S, et al. Serum IL-8 levels and localization of IL-8 in liver from patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Hepato-gastroenterology. 1997; 45(23):1630-4. PMID: 9840119
44. Jahan S, Khaliq S, Ijaz B, Ahmad W, Hassan S. Role of HCV Core gene of genotype 1a and 3a and host gene Cox-2 in HCV- induced pathogenesis. Virol J. 2011; 8:155. PMID: 21457561 [DOI:10.1186/1743-422X-8-155]
45. Sousa GM, Oliveira IS, Andrade LJ, Sousa-Atta ML, Parana R, Atta AM. Serum levels of Th17 associated cytokines in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Cytokine. 2012; 60(1):138-42. PMID: 22748467 [DOI:10.1016/j.cyto.2012.06.003]
46. Hennig BJ, Frodsham AJ, Hellier S, Knapp S, Yee LJ, Wright M, et al. Influence of IL‐10RA and IL‐22 polymorphisms on outcome of hepatitis C virus infection. Liver Int. 2007; 27(8):1134-43. PMID: 17845543 [DOI:10.1111/j.1478-3231.2007.01518.x]
47. Huang CF, Yeh ML, Hsieh MH, Hsieh MY, Lin ZY, Chen SC, et al. Clinical utility of host genetic IL-28B variants in hepatitis C virus genotype 1 Asian patients retreated with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013; 28(9):1515-20. PMID: 23560893 [DOI:10.1111/jgh.12211]
48. Chen TY, Hsieh YS, Wu TT, Yang SF, Wu CJ, Tsay GJ, et al. Impact of serum levels and gene polymorphism of cytokines on chronic hepatitis C infection. Translational research: J lab clin Med. 2007; 150(2):116-21. PMID: 17656331
49. Sharma A, Chakraborti A, Das A, Dhiman RK, Chawla Y. Elevation of interleukin‐18 in chronic hepatitis C: implications for hepatitis C virus pathogenesis. Immunology. 2009; 128(1pt2):e514-e22. PMID: 19740312 [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2567.2008.03021.x]
50. Chattergoon MA, Levine JS, Latanich R, Osburn WO, Thomas DL, Cox AL. High plasma interleukin-18 levels mark the acute phase of hepatitis C virus infection. J Infect Dis. 2011; 204(11):1730-40. PMID: 21984735 [DOI:10.1093/infdis/jir642]
51. Mizokami M. Discovery of critical host factor, IL-28B, associateed with response to hepatitis C virus treatment. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012; 27(3):425-9. PMID: 22168813 [DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1746.2011.07054.x]
52. Arends JE, Fransen JH, Hoepelman AI, van Baarle D. Association between IL28B polymorphisms and first-phase viral load decrease in chronic hepatitis C virus-infected patients treated with peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin. Int J Antimicrobial Agents. 2011; 38(6):538-9. PMID: 21974859 [DOI:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2011.08.010]
53. Ciesla A, Bociaga-Jasik M, Sobczyk-Krupiarz I, Glowacki MK, Owczarek D, Cibor D, et al. IL28B polymorphism as a predictor of antiviral response in chronic hepatitis C. World J Gastroenterol. 2012; 18(35):4892-7. PMID: 23002361 [DOI:10.3748/wjg.v18.i35.4892]
54. Fonseca-Coronado S, Vaughan G, Cruz-Rivera MY, Carpio-Pedroza JC, Ruiz-Tovar K, Ruiz-Pacheco JA, et al. Interleukin-28B genotyping by melt-mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR analysis using single nucleotide polymorphisms rs12979860 and rs8099917, a useful tool for prediction of therapy response in hepatitis C patients. J Clin Microbiol. 2011; 49(7):2706-10. PMID: 21613433 [DOI:10.1128/JCM.00877-11]
55. Cariani E, Villa E, Rota C, Critelli R, Trenti T. Translating pharmacogenetics into clinical practice: interleukin (IL) 28B and inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) polymophisms in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2011; 49(8):1247-56. PMID: 21612542 [DOI:10.1515/CCLM.2011.618]
56. Pagliaccetti NE, Robek MD. Interferon-lambda in HCV Infection and Therapy. Viruses. 2010; 2(8):1589-602. PMID: 21994696 [DOI:10.3390/v2081589]
57. Di Marco V, Calvaruso V, Grimaudo S, Ferraro D, Pipitone R, Di Stefano R, et al. Role of IL‐28B and inosine triphosphatase polymorphisms in efficacy and safety of Peg‐Interferon and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C compensated cirrhosis with and without oesophageal varices. J Viral Hepat. 2013; 20(2):113-21. PMID: 23301546 [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2893.2012.01637.x]
58. Poordad F, Lawitz E, Kowdley K, Everson G, Freilich B, Cohen D, et al. 1399 12-week interferon-free regimen of abt-450/r+ abt-333+ ribavirin achieved svr12 in more than 90% of treatment-naive hcv genotype-1-infected subjects and 47% of previous non-responders. J Hepatol. 2012; 56(S5):49-S50. [DOI:10.1016/S0168-8278(12)61410-X]
59. Patel K, Lucas JE, Thompson JW, Dubois LG, Tillmann HL, Thompson AJ, et al. High predictive accuracy of an unbiased proteomic profile for sustained virologic response in chronic hepatitis C patients. Hepatol. 2011; 53(6):1809-18. PMID: 21381069 [DOI:10.1002/hep.24284]
60. Neumann U. Impact of IL-28B polymorphism on outcome in patients with hepatitis C after liver transplantation. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011; 5(4):429-31. PMID: 21780887 [DOI:10.1586/egh.11.54]
61. Berger CT, Kim AY. IL28B polymorphisms as a pretreatment predictor of response to HCV treatment. Infect Dis clinics North America. 2012; 26(4):863-77. PMID: 23083820
62. Al-Qahtani AA, Al-Anazi MR, Al-Zoghaibi F, Abdo AA, Sanai FM, Khan MQ, et al. The association of toll-like receptor 4 polymorphism with hepatitis C virus infection in Saudi Arabian patients. BioMed Res Int. 2014; 2014: 357062. PMID: 25177689
63. Persico M, Capasso M, Russo R, Persico E, Croce L, Tiribelli C, et al. Elevated expression and polymorphisms of SOCS3 influence patient response to antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis C. Gut. 2008; 57(4):507-15. PMID: 17881539 [DOI:10.1136/gut.2007.129478]
64. Knapp S, Yee L, Frodsham A, Hennig B, Hellier S, Zhang L, et al. Polymorphisms in interferon-induced genes and the outcome of hepatitis C virus infection: roles of MxA, OAS-1 and PKR. Genes Immun. 2003; 4(6):411-9. PMID: 12944978 [DOI:10.1038/sj.gene.6363984]
65. Gao B, Hong F, Radaeva S. Host factors and failure of interferon‐α treatment in hepatitis C virus. Hepatol. 2004; 39(4):880-90. PMID: 15057887 [DOI:10.1002/hep.20139]
66. Glymph S, Mandal S, Knowell AE, Abebe F, Chaudhary J. The myxovirus resistance A (MxA) gene− 88G> T single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with prostate cancer. Infect, Genet Evol. 2013; 16:186-90. PMID: 23438650 [DOI:10.1016/j.meegid.2013.02.010]
67. Hijikata M, Mishiro S, Miyamoto C, Furuichi Y, Hashimoto M, Ohta Y. Genetic polymorphism of the MxA gene promoter and interferon responsiveness of hepatitis C patients: revisited by analyzing two SNP sites (–123 and–88) in vivo and in vitro. Intervirology. 2002; 44(6):379-82. PMID: 11805446 [DOI:10.1159/000050075]
68. Netherton CL, Simpson J, Haller O, Wileman TE, Takamatsu H-H, Monaghan P, et al. Inhibition of a large double-stranded DNA virus by MxA protein. J Virol. 2009; 83(5):2310-20. PMID: 19109387 [DOI:10.1128/JVI.00781-08]
69. Sadeq R, Mohtady H, Al Badawy N, Ibrahim S, Omar AR, Husseiny MI, et al. Endogenous IFNgamma in chronic HCV genotype 4 patients treated with PEG-IFNalpha and ribavirin. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2013; 7(11):859-67. PMID: 24240045 [DOI:10.3855/jidc.2937]
70. Stevenson NJ, Murphy AG, Bourke NM, Keogh CA, Hegarty JE, O'Farrelly C. Ribavirin enhances IFN-α signalling and MxA expression: a novel immune modulation mechanism during treatment of HCV. PLoS One. 2011; 6(11):e27866. PMID: 22114715 [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0027866]
71. Abbas Z, Moatter T, Hussainy A, Jafri W. Effect of cytokine gene polymorphism on histological activity index, viral load and response to treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 3. World J Gastroenterol: 2005; 11(42):6656. PMID: 16425360 [DOI:10.3748/wjg.v11.i42.6656]
72. Suppiah V, Moldovan M, Ahlenstiel G, Berg T, Weltman M, Abate ML, et al. IL28B is associated with response to chronic hepatitis C interferon-α and ribavirin therapy. Nat Genet. 2009; 41(10):1100-4. PMID: 19749758 [DOI:10.1038/ng.447]
73. Taguchi T, Nagano-Fujii M, Akutsu M, Kadoya H, Ohgimoto S, Ishido S, et al. Hepatitis C virus NS5A protein interacts with 2′, 5′-oligoadenylate synthetase and inhibits antiviral activity of IFN in an IFN sensitivity-determining region-independent manner. J Gen Virol. 2004; 85(4):959-69. PMID: 15039538 [DOI:10.1099/vir.0.19513-0]
74. Suzuki S, Tanaka Y, Orito E, Sugauchi F, Hasegawa I, Sakurai M, et al. Transforming growth factor‐beta‐1 genetic polymorphism in Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003; 18(10):1139-43. PMID: 12974889 [DOI:10.1046/j.1440-1746.2003.03161.x]
75. Pereira FA, Pinheiro da Silva NN, Rodart IF, Carmo TM, Lemaire DC, Reis MG. Association of TGF-beta1 codon 25 (G915C) polymorphism with hepatitis C virus infection. J Med virol. 2008; 80(1):58-64. PMID: 18041006 [DOI:10.1002/jmv.21011]
76. Gewaltig J, Mangasser-Stephan K, Gartung C, Biesterfeld S, Gressner AM. Association of polymorphisms of the transforming growth factor-β1 gene with the rate of progression of HCV-induced liver fibrosis. Clin Chim Acta. 2002; 316(1):83-94. PMID: 11750277 [DOI:10.1016/S0009-8981(01)00738-0]
77. Harfouch S, Guiguet M, Valantin M-A, Samri A, Ouazene Z, Slama L, et al. Lack of TGF-β production by hepatitis C virus-specific T cells during HCV acute phase is associated with HCV clearance in HIV coinfection. J Hepatol. 2012; 56(6):1259-68. PMID: 22326469 [DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2012.01.021]
78. Hill AV. The immunogenetics of human infectious diseases. Ann Rev Immun. 1998; 16(1):593-617. PMID: 9597143 [DOI:10.1146/annurev.immunol.16.1.593]
79. Yu RB, Hong X, Ding WL, Tan YF, Zhang YX, Sun NX, et al. The association between the genetic polymorphism of HLA-DQA1, DQB1, and DRB1 and serum alanine aminotransferase levels in chronic hepatitis C in the Chinese population. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008; 23(9):1394-402. PMID: 18028350 [DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1746.2007.05215.x]
80. Mahmoudi T, Mohebbi SR, Pourhoseingholi MA, Fatemi SR, Zali MR. Vitamin D receptor gene ApaI polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to colorectal cancer. Dig Dis sci. 2010; 55(7):2008-13. PMID: 19795209 [DOI:10.1007/s10620-009-0989-8]
81. Rizk NM, Derbala MF. Genetic polymorphisms of ICAM 1 and IL28 as predictors of liver fibrosis severity and viral clearance in hepatitis C genotype 4. Clin Rese Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2013; 37(3):262-8. PMID: 23137758 [DOI:10.1016/j.clinre.2012.09.012]
82. Höhler T, Kruger A, Gerken G, Schneider PM, zum Büschenfelde KHM, Rittner C. Tumor necrosis factor alpha promoter polymorphism at position‐238 is associated with chronic active hepatitis C infection. J Med virol. 1998; 54(3):173-7. PMID: 9515764 https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9071(199803)54:3<173::AID-JMV5>3.0.CO;2-2 [DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9071(199803)54:33.0.CO;2-2]
83. Nattermann J, Ahlenstiel G, Berg T, Feldmann G, Nischalke H, Müller T, et al. The tandem‐repeat polymorphism of the DC‐SIGNR gene in HCV infection. J viral hepat. 2006; 13(1):42-6. PMID: 163644081 [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2893.2005.00652.x]
84. Price DA, Bassendine MF, Norris S, Golding C, Toms GL, Schmid ML, et al. Apolipoprotein ε3 allele is associated with persistent hepatitis C virus infection. Gut. 2006; 55(5):715-8. PMID: 16299033 [DOI:10.1136/gut.2005.079905]
85. Minakari M, Sameni FK, Shalmani HM, Molaee M, Zali MR. Hepatic steatosis in Iranian patients with chronic hepatitis C. Med Princ Pract. 2008; 17(2):126-30. PMID: 18288796 [DOI:10.1159/000112966]
86. Naito M, Matsui A, Inao M, Nagoshi S, Nagano M, Ito N, et al. SNPs in the promoter region of the osteopontin gene as a marker predicting the efficacy of interferon-based therapies in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Gastroenterol. 2005; 40(4):381-8. PMID: 15868370 [DOI:10.1007/s00535-005-1558-3]
87. Shaker O, El‐Shehaby A, Fayez S, Zahra A, Marzouk S, El Raziky M. Osteopontin gene polymorphisms as predictors for the efficacy of interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis C Egyptian patients with genotype 4. Cell Biochem Funct. 2013; 31(7):620-5. PMID: 23400862 [DOI:10.1002/cbf.2954]
88. Zali MR, Mayumi M, Raoufi M, Nowroozi A. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in the Islamic Republic of Iran: A preliminary study. East Mediterr Health J. 2000; 6(2-3):372-7. PMID: 11556026
89. Yamada G, Iino S, Okuno T, Omata M, Kiyosawa K, Kumada H, et al. Virological response in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1b and a high viral load: impact of peginterferon-alpha-2a plus ribavirin dose reductions and host-related factors. Clin Drug Investig. 2008; 28(1):9-16. PMID: 18081356 [DOI:10.2165/00044011-200828010-00002]
90. Goralczyk AD, Cameron S, Amanzada A. Treatment of chronic HCV genotype 1 infection with telaprevir: a Bayesian mixed treatment comparison of fixed-length and response-guided treatment regimens in treatment-naïve and–experienced patients. BMC Gastroenterol. 2013; 13(1):148. PMID: 24118976 [DOI:10.1186/1471-230X-13-148]
91. Olmstead AD, Knecht W, Lazarov I, Dixit SB, Jean F. Human subtilase SKI-1/S1P is a master regulator of the HCV Lifecycle and a potential host cell target for developing indirect-acting antiviral agents. PLoS Pathogens. 2012; 8(1):e1002468. PMID: 22241994 [DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002468]
92. Zeuzem S, Andreone P, Pol S, Lawitz E, Diago M, Roberts S, et al. Telaprevir for retreatment of HCV infection. N Engl J Med. 2011; 364(25):2417-28. PMID: 21696308 [DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1013086]
93. Moura AS, Carmo RA, Teixeira AL, Teixeira MM, Rocha MO. Soluble inflammatory markers as predictors of virological response in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection treated with interferon-alpha plus ribavirin. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 2011; 106(1):38-43. PMID: 21340353 [DOI:10.1590/S0074-02762011000100006]
94. Tahaei SME, Mohebbi SR, Azimzadeh P, Vahedi M, Almasi S, Romani S, et al. Frequency of HIV and HCV co-infections in chronic HBV patients referred to Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran from 2006 to 2010. Hepat Mon. 2011; 11(12):993-6. https://doi.org/10.5812/kowsar.1735143X.4148 [DOI:10.5812/kowsar.1735143X.740]
95. Rezaei-Tavirani M, Safaei A, Zali MR. The association between polymorphisms in insulin and obesity related genes and risk of colorectal cancer. Iran J Cancer Prev. 2013; 6(4):179-85. PMID: 25250132